Monday, November 18, 2013

NGUYỄN THIÊN THU* THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE COMMUNIST LEADERS

 
THE DIFFERENCES  BETWEEN THE COMMUNIST LEADERS

by  NGUYỄN THIÊN THU

Marx was a confidant philosopher, he always affirmed that his theory was  absolutely correct . Besides , Engels appraised him so much when he wrote:
This law, which has the same significance for history as the law of the transformation of energy has for natural science.( 1 )

Formal logic itself has been the arena of violent controversy from the time of Aristotle to the present day. And dialectics has so far been fairly closely investigated by only two thinkers, Aristotle and Hegel. But it is precisely dialectics that constitutes the most important form of thinking for present-day natural science, for it alone offers the analogue for, and thereby the method of explaining, the evolutionary processes occurring in nature, inter-connections in general, and transitions from one field of investigation to another ( 2) 

Natural Science is an exact science, but philosophy, literature and religion are  the Social Science. Nobody cannot deny the laws of science , on contrary, there are many discords  in politics, religion and philosophy.   It is the same in the Communist world, a lot of communist leaders didn't   follow exactly Marx, even they betrayed Marx. Milovan Djilas  criticized  Marx's dialectic of nature :
In the history of human thought  it would be difficult  to find anything more nonsensical  than the Marxist doctrine on the  dialectic of nature ; yet for all that , it has , by supplementing Marxist ideology , played a tremendous role  in social struggles This could well  lead one to take a rather dim view of human being and their intelligence. (3)
 
I. PROLETARIAT  AND  PEASANT 

Karl Marx  focused on the modern capitalism and proletariat.  The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.  It began in England and within a few decades had spread to Western Europe and the United States.
In 1848,  Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto , the capitalism and the proletariat  were developing. But at that time, the intellectuals established the Communist Party and Karl Marx and Engels wrote the "Communist Manifesto".  In this manifesto, he wrote:"In countries like France, where the peasants constitute far more than half of the population".(4)  

Thus, Marx realized that the peasants were the majority but he forgot them, he only focused on the proletariat class.In common sense, proletariat is the lowest or one of the lowest economic and social classes in a society. In ancient Rome the proletariat consisted of the poor landless freemen. It included artisans and small tradesmen who had been gradually impoverished by the extension of slavery. But in Marxism, proletariat class is only the working class.  Engels defined that: by proletariat, the class of modern wage laborers who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labor power in order to live.(5)

Marx proclaimed:" Of all the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie today, the proletariat alone is a genuinely revolutionary class ( 6)  while  he criticized the middle class including the peasants: The lower middle class, the small manufacturer, the shopkeeper, the artisan, the peasant, all these fight against the bourgeoisie, to save from extinction their existence as fractions of the middle class. They are therefore not revolutionary, but conservative. Nay, more, they are reactionary, for they try to roll back the wheel of history.(7)

Although realized the important role of the peasants in the revolution when he said:
Today the question of the peasant movement has become vital not only in the theoretical but also in the most direct practical sense. We now have to transform our general slogans into direct appeals by the revolutionary proletariat to the revolutionary peasantry. The time has now come when the peasantry is coming forward as a conscious maker of a new way of life in Russia. And the course and outcome of the great Russian revolution depend in tremendous measure on the growth of the peasants’ political consciousness (8),  Lenin still followed Marx strictly to highlight the workers.

In China and in Vietnam, at the beginning of the XXth century, the force of capitalism and the proletariat were still weak.According to Đào Duy Anh, under  French colonial rule, Vietnam had 150.000 workers (9).According to Nguyễn Thế Anh,  before 1945, Vietnam had 200.000 workers including children.(10)

Thus, the force of workers in Vietnam under  French colonialism occupied about 1% the population. The force of workers in China, Russia might be the same. In China, the farmers  comprised  far more than half of the population.  Mao Zedong recognized  the power of the farmers,  he  promoted both farmers and workers , so both of them became allies in the Chinese Communist Party.

After Mao Zedong died,  Dèng Xiǎopíng returned to Capitalism with  the market economy. Jiang Zemin came to power following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, replacing Zhao Ziyang as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.  Jiang Zemin presented his Three Represents theory at its Sixteenth Party Congress in 2002."Three Represents" refers to what the Communist Party of China currently stands for.
That is:
It represents the development trends of advanced productive forces.
It represents the orientations of an advanced culture.
It represents the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people of China.(11)


His theory is very obscure. But in fact, Jiang Zemin abandoned Marx and Mao, and replaced workers and farmers with businessmen and intellectuals. But businessmen and intellectuals are the red capitalists, the family members of the Chinese  communist leaders.

Marx, Lenin, Stalin, Mao Zedong and Hồ Chí Moinh emphasized the workers, but in fact workers and peasants became their victims. With their command economy, they created  Five year plans, Ten year plans to serve  their ambition of rapid industrialization and collectivization of agriculture. However, these efforts often led to less efficient production, ensuring that mass starvation swept the countryside.

In a word,  Communists took advantage of farmers and workers, they killed them, tortured them  and exploited them. When their people , especially the workers and peasants lived in misery, they became the red capitalists enjoyed a splendid life. They betrayed their country and their people. They were the liars.

II.  THE CLASS STRUGGLE
 
Karl  Marx came out with the theory of class struggle, hence many people followed him and praised him so much. Although he was maltreated after the Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm movement in 1956, Trần Đức Thảo wrote:" the class struggle perspective is correct and fundamental. " (12)
 
 Many philosophers and communists in the world respected Stalin, especially Mao Zedong and Hồ Chí Minh. But  everything changed when Khrushchev gave a speech entitled, "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences," concerning Stalin on 25 February 1956  to a closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Khrushchev thoroughly shocked his listeners by denouncing Stalin's dictatorial rule and his cult of personality as inconsistent with Communist and Party ideology. After De-Stalinization, Khrushchev launched a lengthy series of reforms. Those reforms were called revisionism.

Khrushchev’s revisionism refers to claims by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that:
• Socialism can be brought about by peaceful, constitutional means within capitalist democracies.
• Socialist and capitalist countries can coexist peacefully.

 The term "revisionism" has been used in a number of different contexts to refer to a number of different revisions (or claimed revisions) of Marxist theory but all kinds of revisionism have the same aim to criticize Marxism.

 In the late 19th century, revisionism was used to describe democratic socialist writers such as Eduard Bernstein (12) and Jean Jaurès, who sought to revise Karl Marx's ideas about the transition to socialism and claimed that a revolution through force was not necessary to achieve a socialist society. The views of Bernstein and Jaurès gave rise to reformist theory, which asserts that socialism can be achieved through gradual peaceful reforms from within a capitalist system.

 In the 1920s and 1930s, the International Left Opposition led by Leon Trotsky, which had been expelled from the Communist International, accused the leadership of the Comintern and Soviet Union of revising the internationalist principles of Marxism and Leninism in favor of the aspirations of an elite bureaucratic caste which had come to power in the Soviet Union.

The Trotskyists saw the nascent Stalinist bureaucracy as a roadblock on the proletariat's path to world socialist revolution, and to the shifting policies of the Comintern, they counterposed the Marxist theory of Permanent Revolution. The Soviet authorities, meanwhile, labeled the Trotskyists as "revisionists" and eventually expelled them from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, whereupon the Trotskyists founded their Fourth International.


In the 1940s and 1950s within the international communist movement, revisionism was a term used by Stalinists to describe communists who focused on consumer goods production instead of heavy industry; accepted national differences instead of promoting proletarian internationalism; and encouraged liberal reforms instead of remaining faithful to established doctrine. Revisionism was also one of the charges leveled at Titoists as punishment for their pursuance of a relatively independent form of communist ideology, amidst a series of post-World War 2 purges beginning in 1949 in Eastern Europe by the Soviet administration under Stalin.

 After Stalin's death a more participatory, more democratic form of socialism became briefly acceptable in Hungary during Imre Nagy's government (1953-1955) and in Poland during Władysław Gomułka's government, containing ideas that the rest of the Soviet bloc, and the Soviet Union itself, variously considered revisionist, although neither Nagy nor Gomułka described themselves as revisionists, since to do so would have been self-deprecating.

Following the 1956 Secret Speech that denounced Stalin, many communist activists, astounded and disheartened by what they saw as the betrayal of Marxist-Leninist principles by the very people who had founded them, resigned from western communist parties in protest. These quitters were sometimes accused of revisionism by those communists who remained in these parties, although some of these same loyalists also shortly thereafter split from the same communist parties in the 1960s to become the New Left "anti-revisionists", indicating that they, too, were disillusioned by the actions of the Soviet Union by that point in time.

Most of those who left in the sixties started aligning themselves closely with Mao Zedong as opposed to the Soviet Union. E. P. Thompson's New Reasoner was an example.In the early 1960s, Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China revived the term revisionism to attack Nikita Khrushchev and the Soviet Union over various ideological and political issues, as part of the Sino-Soviet split. The Chinese routinely described the Soviets as "modern revisionists" through the 1960s.(Wikipedia).
In the years 1960, a lot of Vienamese communists adopted the revisionism of Khrushchev with the hope that Socialist and capitalist countries can coexist peacefully and North Vietnam and South Vietnam could live in peace.(Wikipedia- Revisionism)

Khrushchev's party colleagues, Mao Zedong, Lê Duẩn, Lê Đức Thọ attacked The Modern Revisionism  but in the World War II, Stalin and Mao cooporated with the USA, and Dèng Xiǎopíng
opened China to foreign capitalists' investment. So do the Vietnamese communists.

V. FIVE STAGES OF  HUMAN KIND
 
 Marx divided fives stages in the history of humankind:
- Primitive Communism
- Slave Society
- Feudalism
- Capitalism
- Socialism
Marx demanded a certain, "inevitable" path, a "law of history" that would demonstrate the absolute inevitability of history's reaching its final glory in a communist society. In the Communist Manifacto, he said:" What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable "(14)


Marx is wrong because of many reasons:
(1). Five stages are avoidable and unecessary.
Until today, there are many tribes living in the forests. In some countries, feudalism coexisted with capitalism.  Communism couldn't conquer  France, England, Autralia, Canada, and the USA. In those countries, Capitalism coexisted with Proletariat.  Capitalism lasts long than communism because the fall of East Europe and USSR at the end of XXth century.

(2). Marx's affirmation of five stages is  contrary to his Dialectical and Historical Materialism.

Dialectics holds that nature is not a state of rest and immobility, stagnation and immutability, but a state of continuous movement and change, of continuous renewal and development, where something is always arising and developing, and something always disintegrating and dying away.
Engels said: "All nature, from the smallest thing to the biggest. from grains of sand to suns, from protista (the primary living cells – J. St.) to man, has its existence in eternal coming into being and going out of being, in a ceaseless flux, in unresting motion and change (15)

 All nature  changes why communism doesn't change? Something is always arising and developing,why communism is worse than capitalim?
Lenin  was  Marx's discipline but he didn' follow strickly his master when Lenin advocated that countries can move on communism without the development of capitalism. Thus, Lenin proved that people can make history, history is a pruduction of human mind,  hence history is not the materialist law. If we can abandoned the stage of capitalism, we also can abandon communism. Communism is evitable! So  Marx's fives stages of history were also production of his imagination, not the law of history.

Moreover, Lenin divided the stage of communism into two phases: socialism and communism. Thus, are there five stages or six stages of history of human development?

In a word, Marxism is  a wrong theory, therefore many people criticized it, even the communist leaders.



Although trying to change USSR with the policy of Perestroika  and Glasnost , at last Gorbachev gave up, he said:"
“We have retreated from the perennial values. I don't think that we need any new values. The most important thing is to try to revive the universally known values from which we have retreated.

As a young man, I really took to heart the Communist ideals. A young soul certainly cannot reject things like justice and equality. These were the goals proclaimed by the Communists. But in reality that terrible Communist experiment brought about repression of human dignity. Violence was used in order to impose that model on society. In the name of Communism we abandoned basic human values. So when I came to power in Russia I started to restore those values; values of "openness" and freedom.” ( Wikipedia)

President Boris Yeltsin also proclaimed": You can build a throne with bayonets, but you can't sit on it for long. Communists are incurable, they must be eradicated.
The sayings of the most famous  communist leaders in USSR are the grace shots given to the communism at its last day

____

(1).Engels.Preface to the Third German Edition of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonapart.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1885/prefaces/18th-brumaire.htm
(2). Engels.On Dialectics (1878)http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1878/05/dialectics.htm
(3). Milovan Djilas .Unperfect Society Beyond the New Class.Harcourt Bruce& World, NewYork, 1969, 83.
(4).Communist Manifesto Part III,
(5). Communist Manifesto. Note by Engels - 1888 English edition.
(6). Communist Manifesto I
(7). Communist Manifesto I
(8).Lenin. The Proletariat and the Peasantry- http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1905/nov/12.htm )
(9). Đào Duy Anh. Việt Nam Văn Hóa Sử Cương. Quan Hải Tùng Thư, Huế.1938. 68.

(10). Nguyễn Thế Anh.Việt Nam Dưới Thời Pháp Thuộc, Lủa Thiêng, Saigon. 1970, 256
(11). What Is "Three Represents" CPC Theory?  .http://www.china.org.cn/english/zhuanti/3represents/68735.htm
(12).Trần Đức Thảo. Vấn Đề Con Người và Chủ Nghĩa Lý Luận Không có Con Người Xuất bản lần đầu năm 1988, và in lần hai, Saigon, 1989, 122.
(13).Eduard Bernstein (6 January 1850 – 18 December 1932) was a German social democratic political theorist and politician, a member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), and the founder of evolutionary socialism and revisionism. Bernstein had held close association to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, but he saw flaws in Marxist thinking and began to criticize views held by Marxism when he investigated and challenged the Marxist materialist theory of history.[1] He rejected significant parts of Marxist theory that were based upon Hegelian metaphysics; he rejected the Hegelian dialectical perspective.(Wikipedia)
 (14). Comminist Manufacto, part I.\
(15). Marx and Engels, Vol. XIV,  p. 484.)

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